The basic way to calculate your maximum heart rate is to subtract your age from 220. For example, if you're 45 years old, subtract 45 from 220 to get a maximum heart rate of 175. This is the maximum number of times your heart should beat per minute during exercise.

Once you know your maximum heart rate, you can calculate your desired target heart rate zone — the level at which your heart is being exercised and conditioned but not overworked.The American Heart Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend a general target heart rate of:

Moderate exercise intensity: 50 to about 70 percent of your maximum heart rate

Vigorous exercise intensity: 70 to about 85 percent of your maximum heart rate.

Most studies recommends a target heart rate of 65 percent to 75 percent of your maximum heart rate for moderate-intensity exercise.If you're not fit or you're just beginning an exercise program, aim for the lower end of your target zone. Then, gradually build up the intensity. If you're healthy and want a vigorous intensity, opt for the higher end of the zone.

A study (Lauersen JB, 2013) compared strength training. proprioceptive training and stretching in terms of their ability to prevent future musculoskeletal injury.

Results showed that stretching was not found to be beneficial (before or after exercise) for injury prevention. Proprioceptive/balance and strength training were beneficial for injury prevention, with strength training being best. The authors reported that strength training reduced sports injuries to less than one third and overuse injuries by almost 50%.

If you do not incorporate strength training into your exercise program, you are most likely missing out on numerous injury prevention and functional benefits .And this goes for anyone of any age. Such a program does not have to be complicated. Often times, body weight and a few pieces of equipment is sufficient for the novice individual.

1) If you're a back sleeper: Put a pillow under your knees to allow your spine to maintain its natural curve.

2) If you're a stomach sleeper: Put a pillow under your lower abdomen and pelvis to ease back strain.

3) If you're a side sleeper: Draw your legs up slightly toward your chest and sleep with a pillow (a full body pillow can be comfortable) between your knees.

The Right Mattress and Pillow for Sleep

When it comes to selecting a mattress and pillow, Experts say personal preference and comfort rule. Some people prefer the firmness of a harder mattress, while others are more comfortable on a soft mattress. Experts suggest spending a night in a hotel that offers options for guests to purchase pillows and mattresses so that you can try before you buy. Or, see if your mattress store lets you try out a bed overnight or even longer. If that is not an option, perhaps sleeping on the floor in a sleeping bag may mimic a firm surface, and sleeping on a couch may mimic a softer surface.

Some people may find it helpful to use a contoured pillow to alleviate neck strain or to sleep on just one pillow instead of a stack of several pillows.

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